A standardized, cumulative index out of get across-exercise is actually computed per blend of maternal forest and pollen donor, considering adult good fresh fruit place, seeds germination, and you will survivorship and you will development of seedlings. For each and every varieties, mixed-model research regarding variance was applied to evaluate the effects of crossing treatment (repaired perception; with maternal tree included because the an arbitrary feeling) for the portion of give-pollinated plants form mature fruit, costs away from seeds germination and you will seedling survivorship, seedling dimensions in the 1 yr, and you may collective fitness. Multiple designs were looked at having fun with ANOVA: (a) including all of the solutions, (b) leaving out imbalanced treatments, permitting comparison of correspondence terms, (c) without selfing procedures (given that maternal trees was basically mainly otherwise entirely self-incompatible), and you may (d) group every contained in this-Sinharaja https://datingranking.net/de/spirituelle-dating-sites/ outcrossing service to evaluate the outcome of in this- versus. between-tree crossing. The result away from crossing length on every factor is after that checked out having fun with linear or quadratic regression investigation, according to model of the relationship. Lastly, for each and every maternal forest, the results away from nearest-next-door neighbor and much time-distance mating had been projected through indices from biparental inbreeding anxiety and you will outbreeding anxiety, correspondingly, centered on collective exercise values.
Fruit abortion was heavy for all trees, resulting in low fruit set (range across treatments: 2.0–9.7%; Fig. 2a). The timing of abortion was not discernable across treatments. Self-compatibility was low, but variable, across maternal trees (Fig. 2a). Flowers used for tests of apomixis (N = 360) and autogamy (N = 582) failed to set fruit. All analyses of variance in fruit set revealed a highly significant treatment effect and significant maternal tree effect, but no significant interaction between treatment and maternal tree (Tables 2A and 3A). For all three trees, the percentage of experimental flowers setting mature fruit showed a consistent increase with crossing distance, followed by a severe decline in fruit set with the distant between-forest treatment (Fig. 2a). The relationship between crossing distance and fruit set was nearly identical for the three maternal trees and significant with or without the self-pollinated treatment included in the model (quadratic regression model: arcsine square-root [fruit set] = crossing distance [km] + crossing distance 2 ; results without self-pollinated treatment: F2,57 = 8.25, P < 0.0007, R 2 = 0.47). Peak mean fruit set occurred at a crossing distance of 1–2 km (distant within-forest treatment) and was 1.7–4.7 times greater than mean fruit set rates for other hand-pollination treatments, averaged across maternal trees. Mean fruit set rate for the distant within-forest treatment was significantly greater than those for all treatments except distant-neighbor and open-pollinated, but consistently exceeded fruit set of open-pollinated flowers (Fig. 2a).
Fruit set was also low for Sh. cordifolia (range across treatments: 0–5.3%; Fig. 2b). Again, the timing of fruit abortion was not discernable among treatments. Selfed and distant between-forest treatments resulted in 0% and <1% fruit="fruit" set="set">dos,57 = 5.71, P < 0.006, R 2 = 0.41). At each maternal tree, fruit set rate for open-pollinated flowers was greater than that for all hand-cross treatments, suggesting that some aspect of the hand-pollination procedure (e.g., flower handling, bagging) caused reduced fruit set in Sh. cordifolia.1%>